An Open Letter to Western Leaders

For publication in the Adelaide Advertiser. Thanks heaps.

Anthony Doanghey

Dear Editor,

I’ve noticed there have been a lot of articles of late concerning the West’s condemnation of Israeli policy, especially policies that supposedly interfere with the current Peace Talks. And as President Obama and his administration has recently been most verbal of this kind of criticism, I believe there is a real danger of Prime Minister Rudd following suit, as there seems to be a sad and sorry history of Australian politicians playing “follow the leader” when it comes to American policies, especially Foreign Policy, the Vietnam, Iraq and Afghanistan Wars would be fair examples to drive home this particular point.

Mr. Obama has been making an open show of bowing down to Moslem leaders of late, (like the king of Saudi Arabia, who, it is alleged, openly supplies financial resources to Islamic terrorist groups), despite the anti-human rights policies of those countries, yet went to great lengths recently to publicly humiliate the leader of Israel by keeping him needlessly waiting for an appointment in Washington.

How can this action possibly be justified?

How is it even possible to label the Israeli people an “occupying force”?

I mean to say, how is it possible that an archaeologically verified indigenous people are labeled an “occupying force”; by either the leaders of the West or the News Publications of the West? Is it possible for Aboriginals to be an “occupying force” in South Australia or Apaches to be an “occupying force” in Arizona? If not, then neither can Jewish people be an “occupying force” in Israel.

I would also contend that it is a ridiculous notion, as is claimed by many of the West’s media outlets, that the presence of the indigenous people of Israel is somehow responsible for Islamic terror throughout the world. Not only is it a ridiculous notion, it is a hideous lie, and should be considered a criminal act of slander by all who’ve dared to utter or print it as somehow being factual.

Prior to Israel’s 1967 war of self-defence, (the Islamic nations surrounding this small nation planned to attack, not the other way around, Israel rightly saw a pre-emptive attack on these Moslem nations intent of driving her citizens into the sea as the best means of defence), Islamic belligerents were already applying the instruments of terror, one need only check the historical records to prove this fact.

The simple truth is, if there was no Israeli Nation we would still have 80,000 Christians murdered by Islam in The Southern Philippines, 300,000 murdered Christians in East Timor, 3.3 million Christians murdered in Sudan by Islam, 1 million murdered Christians in Nigeria, the martyrdom of 98% of Iranian pastors, the capital execution of converts to Christianity in Saudi Arabia, (supposedly one of the friendly Islamic nations to the West), the terror attacks in New York and Washington, Spain, London, Mumbai, Moscow and elsewhere. We would still have the Islamic riots in Paris, Sydney, and Bradford, England if Israel did not exist as well as the Hamas persecution of Christians in Gaza. If there were no Israel, we would still have over 1,000 instances of Islamic honour killings of women in Jordan alone, and this list could, regrettably, go on and on and on.

To witness the leaders of the West cowing down to the Islamic leaders of the Middle East who are obviously suffering from, not so much a religion, as a psychotic illness, is like watching the darkest, most terrible parts of history repeating themselves, Neville Chamberlin, for instance, thinking it actually possible to reason with a psychotic madman called Adolf Hitler just prior to the outbreak of WWII, springs immediately to mind. Insane men who believe mass murder is a justifiable means to a desired end cannot be reasoned with or bargained with or appeased in any shape, manner or form; one might as well try to reason with a rabid dog as to attempt to reason with men whose minds, hearts and souls have become so obviously misshapen by violent philosophies like that zealously taught from the Koran. This is a book that glorifies a man who has always taught his followers to bring Islam to the infidel with the sword, a man whose followers, in the Hadiths, openly and shamelessly claim him to be a paedophile, a man who at the age of 53 married his 6 year-old cousin, a man who at the age of 56 took this 9 year-old’s virginity, the terrible initiation of this poor girl having no other choice but to regularly gratify this old man sexually until the day of his death.

Now, honestly, I ask you, when comparing this man to the carpenter from Nazareth who said, “Suffer the little children to come unto me, for their’s is the Kingdom of heaven”, or who, at another time, warned that any person who would put even so much as a stumbling block before a child, (and that child’s ability to believe in an all loving creator), would be better off having a millstone chained around his neck and then dropped to the bottom of the deepest ocean than to have to face Him on Judgement Day. Now between these two men, which one do you believe is going to be sent by God to offer salvation to the world? The 56 year-old having sex with children, ordering his followers to attain paradise by committing the most horrendous form of murderous suicide ever devised in the degenerate mind of man, or the one who warns that children should be respected and protected from such wicked depravity whilst commanding His disciples to love those who hated them, to pray for those who would persecute them and to feed their enemies were they to find them hungry?

Please do not be fooled, not even for a moment, into believing all that finely crafted rhetoric floating around out there in mainstream Media-Land about Islam being a peaceful religion, read the book in question, and the commentaries that accompany it, for yourself and you will, I’m sure, no longer be mystified as to how such a beautiful and intelligent a people as the Arab people could possibly end up doing such atrocities as strapping bombs onto themselves and brutally murdering people they have never even had a cup of coffee with. This mental illness masquerading as a spiritual belief relies on making intelligent people stupid in order to commit moronic acts of violence in as an intelligent a manner as possible. This is why it has been so successful so far. However, like the WWII kamikaze pilots of Japan before them, this kind of mindless barbarity can actually be stopped by those with the resolve to do so. And I’m not talking about starting World War Three with these people. It is going to take a lot more than that. This is going to have to be brains not brawn, love not hate, it, ultimately, is going to take a War of Truth over Lies. And right now we have people all over the world making decisions about this violent religious belief based on nothing more than a media fuelled ignorance as the tottering foundation for their ill conceived beliefs. We would all do well to remember that these are the people who actually invented chess we are dealing with here, they well know how to play a game of strategy with the utmost of patience; they also know how to advantageously place their pawns in all the appropriate places long before even thinking of going for checkmate. If the truth be important enough to actually be known in this Post Modern world of ours, they have already placed many of these pawns in the countries they wish to invade and conquer with their mass immigration for oil deals, and the one thing that the Koran makes very clear is that it is a philosophy that has world domination at the end of a sword as its foundation, and telling lies to achieve this end is very much taught to the follower of this religion through this book and its commentaries, the Hadiths.

I suppose, what I’m saying here is, at some point, like Churchill and Roosevelt before us, we are going to have to steal our mettle and finally begin dealing with this dark and terrible menace steadily slouching toward us from Jerusalem, and deal with it before that infamous day of Black Flags finally arrives and all hope is lost for the Western nations of this world. These Islamic leaders have been talking openly for quite some time about finishing what Adolf Hitler started, regarding the mass murder of the Jewish race. In fact, the Grand Mufti, Yassir Arafat’s great uncle, was invited to stay in Germany during the war years, actually spending time with Hitler in his bunker, and is now believed to the be one of the real instigators of the Final Solution to the Jewish Question. Recently the blue-prints of one of the major death camps were found stuffed behind the plaster of a house in Germany and it caused a panic and a failed cover-up by the German authorities. Why? Because this document was allegedly found in the very house the Grand Mufti had stayed at during his time visiting his Nazi friends. It is also believed that he played a large role in coming up with the horrendous strategies to make the mass murder of these innocent people more cost effective.

Now one may well wonder why it is that the Jewish people have been so hated throughout history, and through a purely historic eye, it doesn’t make a scrap of sense. However, when viewed through a spiritual eye, the pieces fall together rather simply. The reason various institutions and races, such as the Catholic Church, many of the Reformers, (Luther, Calvin et al), the Nazis and the Islamic nations all passionately hate the Jews, is because the One True and Living God of the Bible made a covenant with this tiny nation through Abraham. A covenant, unlike a contract, can only be broken by the death of one of the parties concerned, and since Hitler, the Popes and the Imams don’t really have a snowball’s chance in Hell of killing God, there is only one other party of the covenant that they think they can kill, the Jewish Nation. This is all about a group of people who have Satan as their father, trying to do his will. Satan owns the world in which we live at this point in the proceedings, this can be clearly seen when he tempted Jesus in the wilderness by offering him all the kingdoms of the world and their glory if the Son of God would bow down before him. Notice that Jesus doesn’t dispute Satan’s ownership and it wouldn’t have been much of a temptation if Satan didn’t in fact own the world which he offered to Christ for the price of His worship. Satan owns this world at present, the only place he hasn’t conquered is Jerusalem, this is the City of God, the place where the Devil took his worst defeat, and the place where he will take his final defeat. Through a purely historical eye none of this makes sense, but through a biblical eye the mystery is revealed for all who have the eyes to see and the ears to hear. Why else do you think the leaders of the world lose sleep at night about this particular slither of land in the middle of nowhere? It doesn’t have oil or minerals or anything else that would cause such interest from London or Washington or Paris or Canberra. Do you think the leaders of the world are sitting up at night worrying about who lives or doesn’t live in Whyalla? The only reason the world’s eyes are on Israel is because the God of the Bible has prophesied that it would so. The Book of Revelation clearly points out all the details of how the nations of the world are all going to be manipulated by the Devil into attacking this tiny nation and that Jesus Christ Himself is going to come back to save the people that God made a covenant with. But it also states that the nations who bless Israel will be spared a lot of the wrath that will fall upon the Earth Dwellers during the Great Tribulation, and I would like to take this moment to try to encourage anyone reading this to persuade the leaders of this nation to not make the mistake of making us an enemy of Israel, because to do so will also make us an enemy of God Almighty.

I’m not sure if the Lord is knocking on the door as yet, but I could swear I just heard Him wiping His feet on the doormat.

The time is growing late.

Personally, as a Christian, I thank God that Israel absorbed the Christian refugees from Lebanon driven out of their land and homes by Hezbollah. I also thank God that at least one Middle Eastern country protects the human rights of women, secularists, homosexuals and lesbians, and that country is not Saudi Arabia or Iran, or Egypt or Jordan, that country is Israel – the one nation that the Western media and the Western Leaders hypocritically singles out as being somehow criminal in its desire to build some more housing for its people on its own land.

It is also important to point out that prior to the Intifadas; the UN World Health Organization admitted that the standard of living in everything from longevity, employment, and reduced infant mortality improved 370% in Gaza and 320% in The West Bank after 1967 under the Israelis compared to what it had been under Moslem rule.

It is also important to point out that from May 1948 until June 1967 The West Bank, East Jerusalem, The Golan, and Gaza were all in Arab Moslem hands. If they wanted a second Palestinian Arab state in addition to the demographic and geographic one already existing in Jordan (according to Yassir Arafat in 1970 and King Hussein of Jordan in 1967) why didn’t the Moslems create one when they had nearly 20 years to do so.

It is also imperative to point out that, archaeologically and anthropologically speaking, there has never been a Palestinian people, as the modern world currently understands the term. This misleading idiom actually hails from the 2nd Century Roman invasion where the land was cleared of Jews as an act of revenge for this small country’s constant uprisings against Imperial Rome, the Romans called this place from thenceforth “Palestinia”, (Latin), from the Hebraic “Philistine”, of which Goliath the giant slain by the shepherd-king David, was a hero. The Philistines were just one of many of the ancient civilisations wiped out by the Israelites during its many wars for the land given it by God and have not actually existed as a people for many thousands of years. Therefore, the people who call themselves “Palestinians” today, and thus violently demand political rights as a people, do not actually, neither historically nor anthropologically, exist at all.

These are the facts.

Why don’t you print this in your newspaper?

We, as a nation, would do well to heed the words found in Genesis 12:3, when God promised Abraham: “I will bless those that bless you and I will curse those that curse you.”

Australians, we need to seriously consider the following tragic list: Egypt, (a superpower in its day), cursed the Jews, (Abraham’s descendants), and was crushed by the hand of God. Assyria, (another cruel superpower), took the Israelites captive, and was also crushed by the hand of God. Babylon, (another superpower, destroyed the Temple of Solomon and took the Israelites captive), was also obliterated from the face of the planet. Spain, (a Middle-Ages superpower), murdered many Jews, (and many Bible believing Christians), during the infamous Inquisition ordered by the Popes of the time and suddenly the Armada is sunk, and the underdog, England, suddenly found itself ruling the waves. But alas, the powerful British Empire, as soon as Churchill turned his back on the Jews after the war with the betrayal of the Balfour Declaration, was out of power and the Empire immediately began to crumble, and it would be a kindness to suggest that it is, today, even a shadow of its former glory. And one need only look at Nazi Germany and shudder to realise what happened to that nation after it murdered six million of the people that make up the nation that God calls the “Apple of His eye”. During WWII a wall was built around the ghetto in Warsaw, any Jew caught climbing over that wall was riddled to death with machine-gun bullets, after that war, another wall was built, this time around Berlin, and any German caught climbing that wall was riddled to death with machine-gun bullets. It is not a coincidence that the process for the destruction of the Berlin wall began a couple of months or so prior to the last major Nazi war criminal dying behind bars, (Rudolf Hess). This process began in July of 1987 with President Regan’s famous order “Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall”, a couple of months after this declaration, Hess was dead in Spandau Prison, two years later that terrible wall was no more.

“I will bless those that bless you and I will curse those that curse you”.

Ominous words indeed!

It is time for this nation, and the other so-called “Christian” nations of the West, to acknowledge Israel’s right to the only land in the history of the world ever given by The Only True and Living God of the Bible to a people, as well as acknowledge that the God of the Bible is a God who says what he means and means what he says, and we should all tremble at His Word. The West is being taken for a ride it does not want to take to a place no one should ever have to be by being foolish enough to believe they should even attempt to manipulate Israel into giving up land that God Himself has commanded they must never give up precisely because it was given to them by Him. And needless to say the supposed strategy of giving up land to the Moslems in order to guarantee some sort of lasting peace is a an utter deception so great one could hardly conjure up the words necessary to accurately describe it. The Koran and the Hadiths openly teach that salvation for the Islamic world is an impossibility without the total annihilation of the entire Jewish race taking place at their hands as a prerequisite. And no amount of land will ever appease so monstrous a doctrine as that which teaches complete holocaust is necessary for a people to attain paradise. The tragedy is the Islamic leaders are counting on the laziness and apathy of the citizens of the West to keep hidden this truth that is concealed within plain sight within the very pages of this book they claim to be the divine orders of Allah. It’s all right there for anyone to examine, if only we would turn off our wide screen televisions with their 5.1 surround sound and stop listening to the lies of Rupert Murdock et al for a moment and discover the truth before the missiles really start flying. If we join in with Obama et al, and curse this tiny nation then we as a nation will in turn be cursed by the God so many of us claim to believe in. But if, by the grace of God, we decide to once again add wisdom to our faith and the faith of our forefathers, then we, as a nation, can expect the blessings that God has promised in His Word.

I hope and pray our leaders are as godly as they like to claim to be, and finally, once and for all, proclaim their support of this seemingly insignificant nation that has, paradoxically, been a blessing to all the nations of the earth by the birth, life, death and resurrection of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the salvation available to “whomsoever” will believe that He is who He claims to be: The Son of God, The Lord of lords, the King of kings, the Great “I AM”, God Almighty Himself, Hallelujah! Blessed be His name forevermore.

Sincerely,

Anthony Donaghey

Please click here to read at source:  Moriel Ministries

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Pieces of Rare Biblical Manuscript Reunited

By KAROUN DEMIRJIAN

Associated Press Writer

Fri Feb 26, 8:23 am ET

JERUSALEM – Two parts of an ancient biblical manuscript separated across centuries and continents were reunited for the first time in a joint display Friday, thanks to an accidental discovery that is helping illuminate a dark period in the history of the Hebrew Bible.

The 1,300-year-old fragments, which are among only a handful of Hebrew biblical manuscripts known to have survived the era in which they were written, existed separately and with their relationship unknown, until a news photograph of one’s public unveiling in 2007 caught the attention of the scholars who would eventually link them.

Together, they make up the text of the Song of the Sea, sung by jubilant Israelites after fleeing slavery in Egypt and witnessing the destruction of the pharaoh’s armies in the Red Sea.

“The enemy said: ‘I will pursue, I will overtake, I will divide the spoil. My lust shall be satisfied upon them, I will draw my sword, my hand shall destroy them,’” reads the song, which appears in the Book of Exodus. “Thou didst blow thy wind, the sea covered them. They sank like lead in the mighty waters.”

An exhibit at Israel’s national museum dedicated to the Song of the Sea is now bringing together the two long-separated pieces.

One page of the song, known as the Ashkar manuscript, was previously housed in a rare books library at Duke University in North Carolina and was first displayed at the Israel Museum in Jerusalem in 2007.

That’s when a photograph of the manuscript in a local newspaper caught the eye of two Israeli paleographers, Mordechay Mishor and Edna Engel, who noticed it resembled a different page of Hebrew writing known as the London manuscript, presently part of the private collection of Stephan Loewentheil of New York.

“The uniformity of the letters, the structure of the text, and the techniques used by the scribe … it made it very clear to me,” Engel said.

The relationship would not be so clear to a casual observer. The Ashkar manuscript has been so blackened by exposure to the elements that the text is all but invisible, while the London manuscript is legible and far better preserved. But after close study of ultraviolet images, the experts were able to confirm that the texts were not only written by the same scribe, but were also part of the same scroll.

Scholars believe the scroll was written around the seventh century somewhere in the Middle East, possibly in Egypt. It is not known how the two parts were separated or what happened to the rest of the manuscript.

The museum arranged to have the London manuscript brought to Jerusalem. The new exhibit chronicles how the Song of the Sea was written through various ancient manuscripts, from the 2,000-year-old Dead Sea Scrolls to the manuscript known as the Aleppo Codex, written nearly a millennium later.

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Source:Moriel Ministries

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Israel – Whose Land Is It?

The Land of Israel : Palestine and Syria

The name “Palestine” flies around a great deal nowadays in the press and political discussion. Syria too is much in the news. Yet neither Palestine nor Syria is an indigenous name for the country either is nowadays supposed to represent. These were originally names given by outsiders, sailors and merchants coming from the west, to loosely defined regions along the eastern Mediterranean coast and their hinterlands. Syria was the more inclusive term of the two and indeed, as used by early Greeks and by later Greeks and Romans, it included the notion of Palestine, as we see from Herodotos, who wrote of “Palestinian Syria” (using the word as an adjective, not a noun). Hence for him it was merely a section of Syria.

Typically the name “Syria” for classical writers loosely referred to a large region at the eastern end of the Mediterranean. It included the Syria of today, plus Israel, Lebanon, the settled western part of Jordan, and much of southeastern Turkey. Syria was mainly a broad geographic term for the Greeks. It was not seen as the land of one nation or people. Syria was distinct from Assyria, although for some classical writers, Syria included Assyria and Babylonia far to the east.

Yet the indigenous peoples of this region did not see one country but several lands with separate names. The natives called the coastal strip of Lebanon and Syria Canaan (Greeks called it Phoenicia); inland Syria was called Aram; Israel (on both sides of the Jordan) was divided into two kingdoms, Israel and Judah. Also in place were the smaller states of Ammon, Moab, and Edom, northeast, east, and south of the Dead Sea. Pleshet in the Hebrew Bible (Philistia) occupied the coastal strip south of Jaffa. The Bible gives us Canaan, Israel, Aram, and other names, in addition to yet others in various ancient sources, Egyptian, Greek, etc. (including archeological finds).

However, since “Palestine” has come down to the modern West through Rome (and to the modern Arabs through the West), the circumstances of its adoption as a Roman official name need to be considered. On the same grounds, the Roman name for the Land of Israel when Rome had its closest contact with the Jews and their land seems most significant for political discussion today.

Judea (Iudaea) was the Roman name for the Land of Israel during the heyday of the Roman Empire. This meant not only the area called Judea in Israel today; it included the whole area ruled and/or chiefly inhabited by Jews. We can see this usage in various writers in Latin and Greek of that period. Consider Pliny, Suetonius, and Tacitus in Latin, and Plutarch as well as the geographers Strabo and Ptolemy in Greek. Judea stretched along both sides of the Jordan and included, besides Judea proper, most of the coastal plain, Samaria, most of the Galilee, the Golan Heights of today and considerable land to the east of there (areas called in Latin Gaulanitis [=Golan], Batanaea [=Bashan], Auranitis [=Hawran], and Trachonitis). The Romans called this land as a whole Iudaea (from the Greek Ioudaia). The land was mainly inhabited by Jews and was ruled by Jews. Therefore, Lord Robert Cecil, acting British foreign secretary, was right to use the name Judea for the whole land in his famous remark: “Our wish is that Arabian countries shall be for the Arabs, Armenia for the Armenians, and Judea for the Jews” (December 2, 1917).

We should look at what some of the ancient authors had to say about Judea to get the flavor of how they saw the land. Pliny the Elder, whose great work, the Natural History, aspired to present universal knowledge, wrote admiringly of Judea’s capital and religious center: “Jerusalem, by far the most illustrious city of the East, not merely of Judea.” This description reflects a view of Judea as an important country. Pliny described Machaerus this way: “Machaerus, formerly the fortress of Judea next in importance to Jerusalem” (both in Natural History, V:xv:70 and 72). Machaerus was east of the Dead Sea (now in Jordan). It fell to the Romans in 72 AD in the first Jewish revolt, the last stronghold to fall before Masada (in 73 AD).

Tacitus, a Roman historian, also indicates Judea’s geographic expanse. He tells us: “Judaea was divided: the Samaritans came under Felix and the Galileans under Ventidius ” (The Annals, XII:54; M. Grant tr.). Thus Tacitus clearly placed both Samaria and Galilee within Judea. Strabo the geographer does likewise. He writes: “Phoenicia is a narrow country and lies flat along the sea, whereas the interior above Phoenicia [going from west to east-EAG], as far as the Arabians, between Gaza and Antilibanus [from south to north, between Gaza and the Anti-Lebanon mountain range--EAG], is called Judaea” (Geography, 16:2:21; Loeb ed.). Strabo’s Judea is larger than that which Tacitus indicated here. It also includes the Golan and a strip of land on the east bank of the Jordan. Elsewhere in Strabo, Judea’s southern borders reach into the Sinai, touching on Egypt (16:2:34 & 17:1:51). The Latin and Greek authors used Judea in a broad sense, although Rome changed Judea’s outer and inner political borders from time to time, assigning parts of the whole to various Herodian princes or Roman officials. Plutarch, by the way, also used “Palestine,” but in the sense of Philistia, a coastal region adjacent to but distinct from Judea.(1) The name “Palestine” was not used officially by the Romans before Hadrian (135 AD).

Moreover, we clearly see that the Greco-Roman usage of Judea was much broader than the Jewish notion of Judea. The latter was Judah (Yehudah), the southern kingdom after the split of the kingdom of David and Solomon. A certain confusion now arises between the narrow Jewish and the broad Greco-Roman usages. The rough Jewish equivalent for the latter broad usage is the Land of Israel.

The New Testament exacerbates the confusion among modern Westerners, since it uses Judea in both ways, although in different places. It usually follows the Jewish notion, as where it mentions Judea in contrast to other sections of the country. However, several places in Luke and Acts imply the broader Greco-Latin usage (Luke 23:5; Acts 10:37, and several others).

It is of interest, in view of the present attitudes of many churches toward what Israel’s borders should be, that the NT uses the name “the Land of Israel” twice (Matt. 2:20-21) never using the name “Palestine,” nor the adjectival form “Palestinian.” One must wonder about certain supposedly faithful Christians of today, often men of the cloth, who insist on using a name for this country not found in the NT while rejecting the names (Judea and the Land of Israel) that the NT does use.

Before we explain the origin and reappearance of the name Palestine, we ought to trace Judea as a geographic-political name and give a brief political sketch of Israel and the ancient Jews. We also ought to clear up one more complication: Idumaea.

The Israelite kingdom reached its greatest extent under David and Solomon (1004-928 BC). It ruled over much of Aram including Damascus. After the death of Solomon, the kingdom split in two: Judah in the south and Israel in the north, thereby losing much of its power. Nevertheless, the two Israelite kingdoms continued to exist side by side, usually in cooperation, for two hundred years. In 722 BC, Assyria conquered the northern kingdom of Israel. Judah lasted for another 136 years until it was defeated by Babylonia, Assyria’s successor, in 586 BC. In both kingdoms, the leadership of the people were exiled while the common folk remained, although Assyria settled other peoples in Samaria, part of the former northern kingdom. Babylonia in turn was replaced by the empire of Medes and Persians. These were just some of the empires that subdued or ruled over the Jews, although the Jews as a people outlived them all. The same is true for the later empires of Alexander the Great, his Macedonian/Hellenistic successors, and Rome.

The Jews began a comeback under Cyrus the Mede, who allowed the restoration of exiled Jews to Judah, about 538 BC. An autonomous district called Yehud was set up in Judah.(2) This district, called a pahawa in Persian, was actually smaller than the earlier, pre-exilic kingdom of Judah, but expanded later, especially after the achievement of independence by the Maccabbees which brought Jews and others elsewhere in the country (including areas east of the Jordan) into the state of Judea.(3) After Alexander’s conquest, if not earlier, the name Yehud had become known to the Greek-speaking world in the form of Ioudaia(4) and this became the Latin Iudaea (Judea), or perhaps the name came from the people, now called Judeans instead of “Syrians” (as by Herodotos and Theophrastos).

Felix Abel, an erudite scholar (based at the French Catholic Ecole Biblique in Jerusalem), believed that the Greek geographic name Ioudaia derived from Yehoudaié (or Yehudaya), an Aramaic plural meaning “Jews” (consider Daniel 3:8 & Ezra 4:12). In this case, it would have applied to all mainly Jewish-inhabited areas, including and beyond the pahawa of Yehud.(5) Aramaic was the official language of the western portions of the Persian Empire.

Thus from the territory of the Philistines, the name Palestine was extended to the whole hinterland of Southern Syria. By a process familiar to the ancients, the name of the closest, most accessible tribe was applied to the whole country. (6)

Bérard pointed out that Syria is derived from an alternate Greek pronunciation of the name Tyre (consider Tsor in Hebrew and Sour in Arabic).(7) Tyre was long seen by the Greeks as the chief Phoenician city. Adding the Greek suffix -ia to the name, they affixed the newly formed name to the city’s hinterland and subsequently to the whole region, including Israel. Thus the name Syria originally applied to Tyre and its surroundings. One reason that Herodotos could call the Jews/Israelites “Syrians” (specifically “Palestinian Syrians”) was because their language, which we call Hebrew, was linguistically so close to that of the Tyrians and other Phoenicians. Linguists identify Hebrew, Phoenician (some say this includes Ugaritic and Eblaite), Moabite, Ammonite, and Edomite as members of the Canaanite family of languages. Some hold that these were more in the way of dialects of the same tongue, rather than separate languages.

The language group takes it name from Canaan, the apparently original name of the country. Isaiah speaks of the “lip of Canaan” (19:18) as the language of the Israelites. The Egyptians too sometimes used a name for the country derived from Canaan. Bérard and others have pointed out Phoenician linguistic influence on Greek, especially on place names in Greece and the Aegean. However, it was long fashionable to minimize this influence (which suggests cultural influence), despite the identification of Thales, the first Greek philosopher, as a Phoenician by Herodotus. This Aryanist or antisemitic prejudice has given way in some recent studies to the recognition that both Thales and another early philosopher, Pythagoras, were Phoenicians. What is still generally overlooked is the likely Jewish influence on ancient Greek culture. Consider for example the rarely recognized Jewish parallels in Thales and Pythagoras.(8)

After Alexander’s conquest of the Land, the Greek name came to be Ioudaia,(9) however the name Coele-Syria was often used by both Greek and Latin writers. Koyleh-Suria (Coele-Syria) was more inclusive than Ioudaia. It meant Hollow Syria and originally referred to the Biq`a of Lebanon and, apparently, the Jordan Valley –segments of the Syrian-African Rift. Eventually it seems to have included the cities of the Decapolis (that is, Damascus and other Hellenistic cities in Transjordan and their surroundings), and perhaps Phoenicia.(10) For the Greek Polybius and the Roman Livy, it refers to the area between Egypt and northern Syria, the long-disputed battleground of rival Macedonian dynasties, the Seleucids in Syria and the Ptolemies in Egypt.(11)

By the time the Romans conquered the country, in 63 BC, the kingdom of Judea, ruled by the Hasmonean dynasty, stretched along both sides of the Jordan and controlled, besides Judea proper, most of the coastal plain, Samaria, most of the Galilee, and the Golan Heights. While Herod ruled Judea, Augustus Caesar awarded Judea vast tracts of land running far to the east of the Golan of today. The Romans called this land as a whole Iudaea. The land was mainly inhabited by Jews and was ruled by Jews. Herod’s Roman title was “a king, ally and friend of the Roman people” (rex, socius et amicus populi romani), a standard formula for client kings. He had cleverly usurped the kingship from the Hasmoneans through loyalty to the Romans (and married a Hasmonean princess).

After Herod’s death, the Romans divided the kingdom into several parts, giving Herod’s surviving sons a chance to show their capacity for rule. The land as a whole was now called Iudaea by Latin and Greek authors. This meant the lands ruled and/or chiefly inhabited by Jews, as we have discussed above.

Roman hegemony meant several political reorganizations of the country after Herod’s death. The first great Jewish revolt (66-73 AD) ended in Roman victory in the course of which the Temple was destroyed (70 AD). The Romans now again reorganized the country, which was already designated the province of Judea (Provincia Iudaea).(12) Some 65 years later, however, in the year 135 AD, when the Emperor Hadrian’s forces had suppressed the Jewish revolt led by Bar-Kokhba, the emperor renamed the province Provincia Syria Palaestina. The name change had obvious political implications. This becomes even clearer when we bear in mind that at the same time Hadrian forbid Jews to live in a large zone in the heart of Judea around Jerusalem. Furthermore, Rome planted colonists in the zone who belonged to various foreign peoples, chiefly Syrians and Arabs, according to Michael Avi-Yonah.(13) Another historian, Mary Smallwood, writes: “The bulk of the new settlers were Greco-Syrians.”(14) Other colonists were veterans of the Roman legions, no doubt including many Europeans. The Arabs surely deserved a reward from the Romans since the Province of Arabia had “provided the Romans important military support in the suppression of the Bar-Kokhba Revolt and as we know contributed the only complete legion they had for this operation.”(15) Rome was in dire need of manpower, since Bar-Kokhba’s forces had wiped out at least one legion, perhaps two, so it seems from the documents.(16) To appreciate the feelings of some of those who replaced the Jewish population in the forbidden zone we may get some indication from an ancient writer’s remark, which in fact concerns the aftermath of the First Revolt (66-73 AD): “After Titus had taken Jerusalem, and when the country all around was filled with corpses, the neighboring races offered him a crown…”(17) On the other hand, the ancient writer Dio Cassius and some modern historians point to non-Jewish cooperation with the Jewish rebels led by Bar-Kokhba.(18)

The early Christian historian Eusebius (ca. 270-340 AD) captured the poignancy of the situation: “When the Jewish revolt again grew to formidable dimensions, Rufus, governor of Judaea… took merciless advantage… confiscating all their lands… From that time on [of the Jewish defeat, 135 AD], the entire race has been forbidden to set foot anywhere in the neighbourhood of Jerusalem, under… a law of Hadrian which ensured that not even from a distance might Jews have a view of their ancestral soil… When in this way the city [polis] was closed to the Jewish race and suffered the total destruction of its former inhabitants, it was colonized by an alien race.” [Ecclesiastical History, IV:6, tr. Williamson-Louth]

The zone forbidden to Jews took in four toparchies (districts) according to Avi-Yonah (or only three, dixit Smallwood). The zone ran from just north of Hebron to a point halfway between Shekhem (Nablus, ancient Neapolis) and Jifna (ancient Gophna). On the east-west axis it ran from about Kfar Adumim to near Sha`ar HaGai. The name of Jerusalem was also changed. It was now Aelia Capitolina, and had the status of a Colonia (colony) and a polis together with the zone as a whole, which shared the new name of the city. This extreme change in name and demography had profound effects on history. Nevertheless, many Jews remained in the country outside the zone, especially in the Galilee and Golan, but also in Jericho just east of the zone, and elsewhere.

Despite the official change in name, Greek and Latin writers after Hadrian (i.e., Ptolemy the Geographer, Dio Cassius [cf. LV:23; LXIX:13:1 & 14:2], and Eusebius) continued to use Judea along with Palestine. Judea was sometimes used officially by Rome even after Hadrian. Eusebius, writing around 300 AD, summarizes the changes of name: “… Hebrews… inhabited the neighboring country to Phoenicia, which itself was called Phoenicia in old times, but afterwards Judaea, and in our time, Palestine.”(19)

The Arab treatment of geographical names after their conquest of the country (635-640 AD) was paradoxical. The Quran mentions the Holy Land divinely assigned to the people of Israel (Sura V:12, 20-21). However, the Arabs later on did not see this land as a separate country. They typically considered the country merely an undifferentiated part of Bilad ash-Sham (usually translated as Syria or Greater Syria). This view lasted until the end of the British mandate period, as we see from Arab writings and political declarations (such as Arab testimony before the Anglo-American Commission of Inquiry on Palestine, 1946). Before the Crusades the Arabs did use the name Filastin. However, this name referred only to the southern region of the country, what the Romans had called Palaestina Prima.(20) After the Crusades the name was not used by the Muslim Mamluk rulers. The Crusaders had typically called the country the Holy Land (Terra Sancta), sometimes using the Land of Israel (Terra Israel) or other names.

Holy Land was still the usual Western name for the country in the nineteenth century, although it alternated with Palestine, Judea, Zion, the Land of Israel, Land of the Bible, etc., and the Land was sometimes seen as part of Syria, the Levant, or other geographic notions. The highly respected Enciclopedia Italiana (Vol. 26, “Palestina”; ca. 1930) tells us that the name “Palestine” came “to prevail in modern times” over other names. This change apparently took place out of the “scientific” motive to avoid the religious connotations of Holy Land. Thus Palestine was again a Western name as it had been in ancient times. “Palestine” was first officially applied to the country in modern times in 1920 when the peace negotiators at the San Remo Conference juridically established the country as the Jewish National Home. Before World War I, it was an administratively indistinct area of the Ottoman Empire and was shared among various Ottoman administrative departments.

So is Palestine the proper or rightful name of the country?

The name of a country, any country, has to be looked at as a historical object, for if otherwise, a land might as well be called XYZ or No. 14. A country’s name is associated with events and personalities and sentiments. “Palestine” too must be scrutinized in that light. The Roman change of name was part of a complex of related oppressive measures of national despoliation, punishment, and oppression. From the start the name was laden with connotations of Roman hatred for rebels (and for Jews in particular), the slaughter of hundreds of thousands in the war and through the legionaries’ vengeful acts, the ruin of hundreds of villages and towns, the enslavement of survivors, expulsion of a people from its homes and lands (nowadays called “ethnic cleansing”), etc.

The name “Palestine” cannot be divested of the negative overtones of its history, from the circumstances of its Roman official origin. It cannot be considered a “neutral, value free,” purely “scientific” term, as some would have it (regardless of its use even by some Zionists). This is not only because of its current use as an anti-Israel slogan, but because of the context of its origin as a Roman official name. Felix Abel, the noted Catholic historian of the country, frankly states that the name change was “another indication of the anti-Jewish orientation of imperial policy.”(21)

Reference:

1. See in Plutarch his lives of Pompey and Antony, such as “Antony” 36:3.

2. Yehud, later called Ioudaia, was autonomous to some extent or other under Persians and Macedonians (Alexander, the Diadochi, the Ptolemids, and the Seleucids), a period of some 400 years, though it was an administrative unit forming part of larger governmental divisions (first the Persian satrapy of Eber-Nahara, later the Ptolemaic and Seleucid divisions to be named below in note 11). Seth Schwartz, “On the Autonomy of Judaea in the 4th and 5th Centuries BC,” Journal of Jewish Studies, Autumn 1994. Schwartz points to the distinct coinage of Yehud and Ioudaia as important evidence of autonomy, among other proofs.

3. Michael Avi-Yonah describes this process in his Geografya Historit shel Erets-Yisrael (Jerusalem 1984), pp. 17-48.

4. F-M Abel traces the usage of Ioudaia back as early as 320 BC (by Clearchus of Soli, a pupil of Aristotle). F-M Abel, Géographie de la Palestine, II (Paris 1938), pp. 313-314. Assuming a factual background to Clearchus’ story about Aristotle and the Jewish sage, then the name Ioudaia goes back in Greek usage to before Alexander’s conquest of the Land of Israel (332 BC), albeit otherwise unattested for that period. The story is set in the time when Aristotle was living in Asia Minor (347-344 BC). In another place Aristotle locates the Dead Sea in “Palestine.”

5. Abel, Géographie…, I, pp. 314-315. In a parallel deduction, Abel indicated that the name Arabaya, an Aramaic plural meaning “Arabs,” applied to Arab-inhabited areas. Ibid., III, p. 113.

6. F-M Abel, Ibid., II (Paris 1938), p. 313. “Donc du territoire des Philistins, le nom de Palestine s’est étendu tout l’arrire pays qui forme la Syrie Méridionale. Par un procédé familier aux anciens on appliquait au pays entier le nom de la peuplade la plus proche et la plus accessible…” One may consider other geographic names, such as Asia and Africa which originally applied to countries, not to continents.

7. V. Bérard, Les Phéniciens et l’Odyssée, (Paris, 1927); tome I, p439, and tome II, pp 40, 54 & 376. F-M Abel, unlike Bérard, sees the name “Syria” as a corruption of Assyria. F. Abel, Géographie…, II (Paris 1938), pp. 310 & 313.

8. See Bronson Feldman, “The Genesis of Science,” Midstream (August/September, 1983); Elliott A Green, “Did Pythagoras Follow Nazarite Rules?” The Jewish Bible Quarterly (Fall 1991; Jerusalem).

9. F-M Abel traces this broad usage of Ioudaia back as early as 320 BC (by Clearchus of Soli, a pupil of Aristotle). He adds: “Il est donc vraisembable que ce mot [Ioudaia au sens large] fut en usage parmi les Grecs et surtout chez les Alexandrins ds le IVe sicle avant notre re.” He attributes this to the fact that Jews lived throughout the country outside Judea proper. Abel, Ibid., II, pp. 314-315. However, Menahem Stern dates the broad meaning of Judea to the time of Alexander Yannai (103-76 BC) when the state of Judea expanded. He writes: “Judea now became the accepted designation of the country as a whole and continued as its official name…” EJ, VIII, 632. Perhaps Stern is chiefly referring to official usage. M. Stern, in H.H. Ben-Sasson (ed.), A History of the Jewish People (Cambridge, Mass., 1976), p. 226.

10. For the varying boundaries of Coele-Syria, see, inter alia, Victor Tcherikover, Hellenistic Civilization and the Jews (New York: Atheneum, 1977), p.423 n. 36; Aryeh Kasher, “Milhamot Hordos baNabatim,” Divrey HaAkedemya haLeumit haYisraelit le’Mada`im, VII, Booklet no. 4 (1985-86), p. 121 n. 23; Abel, op. cit., pp. 310-12; Avi-Yonah, ibid., pp. 25-6.

11. Coele-Syria was the common Greek appellation in literature for the area we have described, and this is the usage that we have focussed on here. M. Avi-Yonah, Ibid., pp. 26. The Ptolemaic dynasty’s official name for their holdings in and around Israel, what has been described here as Coele-Syria, was “Syria and Phoenicia.” The official Seleucid name for the same area after they captured it under Antiochus III, was “Coele-Syria and Phoenicia.” Menahem Stern in H.H. Ben-Sasson (ed.), A History of the Jewish People (Cambridge, Mass., 1976), p. 191; cf. Avi-Yonah, ibid., pp. 26 & 32.

12. Stern, Encyclopedia Judaica, VIII, 639; Idem., in H.H. Ben-Sasson (ed.), op. cit., p. 246.

13. Michael Avi-Yonah, The Jews of Palestine (Oxford: Blackwell, 1976), pp. 16 and 31 note 7.

14. Mary Smallwood, The Jews under Roman Rule (Leiden: Brill, 1981), pp.460 and 473. By “Greco-Syrians” she may have meant Greek-speaking Syrians or Greeks living in Syria, or a mixture of both.

15. Aryeh Kasher, Jews, Idumaeans, and Ancient Arabs (Tubingen 1988), p208.

16. Graham Webster allows that one legion “may have been lost… in the Jewish Revolt under Hadrian.” He refers to the Legion XXII Deiotariana, which disappeared from the army rolls after Hadrian’s time. G. Webster, The Roman Imperial Army (London 1969); p. 114.

17. A passage from Philostratos. The Life of Apollonius of Tyana, VI:xxix (Loeb ed).

18. Dio Cassius wrote: “Many outside nations, too, were joining them [the rebels]” (Roman History, 69:13:1; Loeb ed.; S. Safrai’s article in EJ, v.9, 247, gives another translation: “They were moreover helped by non-Jews.” Also see Idem, in H.H. Ben-Sasson [ed.], op. cit., p. 331, for yet another translation).

19. Eusebius, Preparation for the Gospel, x:v (Gifford tr.; Oxford: Clarendon, 1903). This quote also points to the identity between Phoenicia and Canaan.

20. See “Filastin” in Encyclopedia of Islam; also see André Miquel in Third International Conference on Bilad al-Sham: Palestine, 19-24 April 1980, II (University of Jordan-Yarmouk University, 1984).

21. F-M Abel, Géographie…, p. 163. “Un autre indice de l’orientation anti-judaique de la politique impériale…”

Resource: “What Did Rome Call The Land of Israel” by Prof. Elliot A. Green and, as referenced above.

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